In electronics, a wafer (also called a slice or substrate) is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a silicon crystal, used in the fabrication of integrated circuits and other microdevices. The wafer serves as the substrate for microelectronic devices built in and over the wafer and undergoes many microfabrication process steps such as doping or ion implantation, etching, deposition of various materials, and photolithographic patterning. Finally the individual microcircuits are separated (dicing) and packaged. Several types of solar cell are also made from such wafers. On a solar wafer a solar cell (usually square) is made from the entire wafer. Wafers are formed of highly pure (99.9999999% purity) nearly defect-free single crystal material. One process for forming crystalline wafers is known as Czochralski growth invented by the Polish chemist Jan Czochralski. In this process, a cylindrical ingot of high purity monocrystalline semiconductor, such as silicon or germanium, is formed by pulling a seed crystal from a 'melt'. Donor impurity atoms, such as boron or phosphorus in the case of silicon, can be added to the molten intrinsic material in precise amounts in order to dope the crystal, thus changing it into n-type or p-type extrinsic semiconductor. The ingot is then sliced with a wafer saw (wire saw) and polished to form wafers.
ＢT 電路基板 直接電鍍銅填孔基板
GaN LED 芯片